My Prophesy

Adam’s sons are body limbs, to say;
For they’re created of the same clay.
Should one organ be troubled by pain,
Others would suffer severe strain.
Thou, careless of people’s suffering,
Deserve not the name, “human being”.

 

Learning Theory Essay

Aref Aalam SN# 000419240

PIDP 3100

Learning Theory Essay

Assignment #1

For Glenn Glay

Vancouver Community College

Learning Theory Essay

Introduction

Learning theory is conceptual framework describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning There are many different views of the learning theory and many different groups of people who have studied and still study the learning theory, Sharan B. Merrian & Laura L. Bierema present them somewhat in chronological order. The five orientation are behaviorist. Humanist, cognitivist, social cognitivist, and constructivist. (as cited in Merriam & Bierema,2014) these difference reminds me to the famous poem of Rumi (1207 –1273) “The Blind Men and the Elephant, “that goes back to the oral Buddhist tradition:

Some Hindus have an elephant to show.

No one here has ever seen an elephant.

They bring it at night to a dark room.

One by one, we go in the dark and come out

saying how we experience the animal.

One of us happens to touch the trunk.

A water-pipe kind of creature.

Another, the ear. A very strong, always moving

back and forth, fan-animal. Another, the leg.

I find it still, like a column on a temple.

Another touches the curved back.

A leathery throne. Another the cleverest,

feels the tusk. A rounded sword made of porcelain.

He is proud of his description.

Each of us touches one place

and understands the whole that way.

The palm and the fingers feeling in the dark

are how the senses explore the reality of the elephant.

If each of us held a candle there,

and if we went in together, we could see it.

The story is much like Ed Young’s classic The Seven Blind Mice (rev. 3/92), but the emphasis here is on quarreling over small pieces of the truth rather than sharing knowledge to create a whole. In my essay I will dig into one theory of the learning known as “Humanistic approach of learning theory.”  First I will summarize the theory and look at key theorists who assisted in its development, then I will move on to describing why I chose this theory as my focus for this essay and how it appeals to my teaching style.  Next, the essay will look at the role of the learner, the role of the instructor, I’ll bring three examples of how this learning theory could be applied in the learning environment. Finally, a conclusion summarizing my findings will pull my reflections together. 

Key Points

           Abraham Harold Maslow was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1908. He is most known for his Humanistic Theory of Learning, which is a result of his life experiences. Maslow is considered the Father of Humanistic Psychology, and his theory is based on the notion that experience is the primary force in the study of human learning and behavior.

As a young boy, Maslow was told he was ‘mentally unstable’ by a psychologist, which directly impacted his development of the Humanistic Theory of Learning. His theory focused on the positive aspect of people, instead of seeing them as something that needed to be fixed. Growing up as a first generation Jewish citizen in America, he also had to deal with acts of racism and ethnic prejudice. His home life was not much better, since he rarely got along with his own mother, due to her narcissism and own prejudices against people. All of these things made him want to pursue a field in psychology in college, since he saw the value in education as well as the need to find an idealistic world based upon widespread education for all. Along with this view he believed that the humans’ drive to learn is intrinsic, which he had experienced in his childhood.

The further development of his Humanistic theory became evident through his studies, since he wanted a theory based upon a normal, healthy human mind – not through psychoanalysis of mentally ill or animal observation of behaviorism. Maslow rejected Freud’s theories and felt that he should focus more on positivism. These ideas made Maslow develop the well known model of levels of motivation, which is based on the hierarchy of needs of humans (see image in next page). These needs help a person reach self-actualization for their learning, which are developed from the very basic survival needs such as food and shelter. Maslow believed that learning positively contributes to psychological health, and to do this you had to satisfy the lower level needs before you could move upward in the scale. Knowles concepts of andragogy appear rooted in humanistic theory and fit nicely with the ideologies presented by Maslow. For example, within the six assumptions of andragogy as proposed by Knowles, he indicated that as one matures, one moves from a dependent personality to that of a self-directing human being. Another assumption proposed that an adult’s experience is a rich resource for learning. Finally, we see that Rogers hold similar beliefs of humanist learning. He sees both therapy and learning as a similar process. “In fact, his “client-centered therapy” is often equated with student-centered learning.” (Learning in Adulthood, 2007, p. 283) Rogers equates such learning with characteristics like personal involvement, self-initiated, pervasive, evaluation by the learner, and experiential learning become part of the total experience. Similar to Maslow and Knowles, we see the attributes of Rogers’ beliefs focus on personal characteristics and values of humans.

2000px-Maslow's_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg


            The development of the hierarchy of needs led to another discovery by Maslow, which was his theory of learning highlighted the differences between experiential knowledge and observer knowledge. He regarded observer, or scientific, knowledge to be inferior to experiential, since one is able to live through learning, instead of just observe it.

             Maslow used these ideas to help people reach their fullest potential in their own learning, but at the same time he had changed the perspective of psychology at the time. He allowed the field of psychology to include the study of fully-functioning individuals, not just those who were considered mentally ill. His positivism and need to break away from his own childhood analysis of ‘mentally ill’ paved the way for his remarkable approach to understanding the intrinsic needs of people to further their own learning. Growing up in such a rough time, as well as living through World War II as a Jewish-American, could have easily made him join other psychologists’ views such as Freud and other behaviorists, but instead he focused on the positive qualities he wanted to see in the world and for others to see in themselves.

What catch my attention

I preferred to choose this Learning Theory among five theories in the textbook because it aligns closely with my teaching style and philosophy. Although, I am not sure this theory correlates well to the programs that I teach. I’ve always considered myself to be a high self-monitor and have endeavoured to seek continual personal improvement, but it’s only with time and maturity that I’ve recognized a broader picture of the way that I fit in with my community, and the larger scope of society. In line with the Humanist theory, I too believe that students have great capacity for growth and development, it also includes solving problem and trouble shooting skills development. In the classroom, students are taught with theoretical courses and practical, while researching the different learning theories, I try to resonate the theories from both the learner’s perspective and the instructor’s perspective. After having 25 years’ experience, I believe that Humanistic Learning theory attributes a lot of value to my experience. I feel that’s a valid way of viewing the theory because recognizing how Humanist Learning Theory incorporate more comprehension into my experience, may help me relate better to others when it comes time for me to promote students learning. In this way this theory will help me in my teaching profession.

Role of the Learner

“The focus of learning is on the individual and self-development, with learners expected to assume primary responsibility for their own learning.” (Caffarella, 1993, p.284) This is in keeping with the Humanistic Learning theory’s perspective that the learner must be self-directed. The learner will be an active participant in his/her education, taking responsibility for his/her own learning, even participating in the planning, execution, and evaluation of their own learning. Some basic principles of the humanistic approach that were used to develop the students’ objectives: 1) Students will learn best, what they want and need to know. 2) Knowing how to learn is more important than acquiring a lot of knowledge. 3) Self-evaluation is the only meaningful evaluation of a student’s work. The emphasis here is on internal development and self-regulation. 4) Feelings are as important as facts. 5) Students learn best in a non-threatening environment. However, there is some research that suggests that a neutral or even slightly cool environment is best for older, highly motivated students (Gage 1991)

Role of the Instructor

There are some basic objectives of the humanistic view of education for instructor’s role that roles of the instructor begin as a facilitator or guide. The instructor will help the learner to develop and grow as a person, but the main prospect is that the learner is primarily responsible for their own learning. While many of the proponents of the Humanistic Learning theory believe that the learner will ideally be self-directed, and Self-actualization is generally accepted as the motivating force that drives people to realize their full potential, to be a better person and be a contributing member of society, to seek knowledge and information. “For Maslow self- Humanist Learning Theory self-actualization is the goal of learning, and educators should strive to bring this about” (Learning in Adulthood, 2007, p. 282) When the instructor is acting as a guide, the learner has greater control over his/her learning and carries a greater responsibility for their own success. That type of learning may work well for students with high motivation, high interest levels, and the ability to self-direct/self-actualize, but some students may require a more directed learning style. So despite the generally accepted concept of the role of the instructor as a guide or facilitator, the situation or the individual may dictate a more formalized environment. Moreover, some adult learners may find the directed approach more comfortable due to traditional beliefs about the learning method

Three Classroom Examples

I take the examples of the Humanistic Learning theory being used in a classroom environment, in Simulator lab and in my life. This examples of Humanistic Learning theory involves the student taking responsibility and control for a significant amount of the learning in compare with traditional instruction and learning that tends to occur in a more structured, linear manner. I will provide my examples illustrating what this learning theory “look like” in different atmosphere.

Example 1 – Open seminars classroom

The first open seminar example is in my Pathology classroom; these open seminars provide a chance for the student’s voice to be heard. Situating desks in a circle, with the teacher joining the circle, gives everyone an equal voice. There should be rules for the open seminar, such as respect of opinions and giving each person a chance to speak in turn and without interruption. The seminar is focus on a subject from a student. In this class we are going over each of the pathologies listed on the CAMRT (Canadian Medical Radiation of Technologist) Competency Profile to ensure students familiarity with them. Preparing case studies on these pathologies and presenting them to their peers will help them understand and apply their knowledge to real life imaging situations. In this assignment they will research an assigned pathology, describe the pathological process, describe/demonstrate it on a variety of medical imaging scans and apply it to patient care and imaging techniques and write a report about their pathology. Required sections: 

1. Describe the pathology including what causes it.  2. Describe possible patient signs and symptoms.  3. Describe how it appears on any imaging modality that may be used to aid in the diagnosis or progress of the pathology.  4. Describe patient care considerations and technical factors during imaging that may need to be adjusted and give a short presentation (5-10 minutes) on the pathology to their peers.  

● Include key points such as what it is, where it is found, how it is imaged, how a patient present, and patient care and technical considerations.  

●They may present it in any style they wish, keeping in mind the point is to teach their peers about the pathology

This cooperative learning lets them work together to find solutions to problems. Each one may have a specific subject within the group to make use of his talents. The instructor supervises each circle of each group or students to answer questions and provide support. This type of learning allows the student to learn how to foster peer relationships, an important skill to carry throughout life, the instructor is a guide and the student becomes very self-directed.

Example 2 – Teaching IPE SIM (Inter-Professional Education Simulation)

My second example of a humanistic learning environment is based on my work with the IPE SIM (Inter-Professional Education Simulation) team for four days three of which were back to back IPE SIMs with MRAD (Medical Radiation Diploma) and Nursing students – 7 hours of SIM each day not including set-up and take down time.

Simulation allows students to incorporate theory into hands-on practice in an environment that allows for errors without risk to patients. Benefits include decreased medication errors, increased communication and teamwork, improved critical thinking and problem-centering skills and immediate, not postponed application of the knowledge learned. Before that time IPE SIM wasn’t clear for me; my expertise is teaching the students in the classroom or at medical sites for their practicum. I have not had the opportunity to participate in this type of collaboration. From the day I started the simulation it became ever more interesting to me as each day passed. I do experience flashbacks which have come to me from previous memories which in turn have helped me realize how effective and worthwhile this problem-center method of collaboration truly is. SIM Cooperative learning lets students work together to find solutions to problems. Each student have his/her specific role-play within the simulation. The teacher supervises each group of two radiology and two nursing students to answer questions and provide support. This type of learning allows the student to learn how to foster peer relationships, an important skill to carry throughout real scenario.

Simulation classroom provides a holistic approach to learning by keeping the focus on the student. The student is respected as an individual and is responsible for making decisions about his or her learning. This type of the education is not rigidly prescribed, but flow according to the needs and inquiries of the student. My duty as an instructor was to facilitate rather than dominate the learning, I honestly enjoyed learning more about student-center SIM with the team. We also had a constructive debrief for IPE SIM, I definitely am looking forward to participating in this cooperative learning and safe SIM IPE in the further.

Example 3 – Parenting

            My final example of a humanistic learning environment is Parenting. Being parent is a good example of the humanistic ideals, guiding your child into adulthood. Simply being a parent will typically call all of the tenets of humanistic learning into play. The parent is the guiding force for the child, seeking to expand the child’s perspective, impart knowledge, build self-esteem and awareness, etc. Although the parent/child relationship is very much an instructor/student relationship, it’s typically an informal process with most learning acquired from discussion and example. Many parents seek guidance for parenthood, hoping to improve their chances of raising a healthy, happy child that will ultimately become a positive, contributing member of society. Enter the parenting class. Similar to being a parent, teaching an adult to be a (better) parent also embodies the tenets and ideals of humanistic learning. For example, a parent may get upset at their children and punish them for doing something wrong, but they are going to still love their children and regard their children without any condition and no matter what. Therefore, this allow us to be open and learn without fearing others are going to look at us differently if we do something wrong. Build Healthy Relationships Based on Mutual Respect. Discover Practical, Positive and Effective Discipline Techniques improve your relationships with children and support them in developing of the qualities, characteristics and life-skills they need to be successful at home, in childcare, at school and in life. Supporting Student Learning, Family and Team Building, Communication, Discipline, Encouragement, and Social Emotional Behavioral Development. my objectives, methods, and the delivery all appear to reflect the principles of humanistic learning.

Summary

            All the learning theories impart the priceless understanding in the field of education. With the brief examine at the given theory of humanistic development. I have discussed that how this theory encouraged me to choose as my learning theory essay, The Humanistic Learning Theory resonated with me more so than the other theories likely because I can relate to most of the ideologies that guide this theory. In recent years, I’ve recognized the how great the potential is for me to impact other people’s lives and conversely, the potential for others to impact my life. This learning theory seems the most honourable, where the person comes before the topic. Some of the goals of the Humanistic Learning theory are to assist people to reach self-actualization, grow as an individual, guide the student rather than direct, and emphasize freedom and responsibility. I brought three very different classroom examples that each typifies the views of the Humanistic Learning theory. I believe that, in a traditional classroom environment, practical application of this learning theory may be difficult to implement on its own, but at the least, instructors should attempt to include the ideals whenever possible. It’s more a matter of long-term growth than the learning of a single topic of study. Finally, an educated person is one “who has learned how to learn, how to adapt and change” and realizes “that no knowledge is secure, that only the process of seeking knowledge gives a basis for security” (Rogers 1969).

References:

Merrian,S.B., Caffarella, R.S., & Baumgartner, L.M. (2007) Learning in Adulthood: A     Comprehensive Guide (3rd edition) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Humanism. Retrieved June 24, 2013, https://www.learning-theories.com/constructivism.html

Merriam, S.B. and Bierema, L.L. (2014) Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice.

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

“Abraham Maslow.” Psychology History. Ed. Michelle Emrich. Web. 20 Sept. 2015.

Merrian,S.B., Caffarella, R.S., & Baumgartner, L.M. (2007) Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide (3rd edition) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Gage, N., & Berliner, D. (1991). Educational psychology (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton, Mifflin.

Humanism. Retrieved June 24, 2013, from http://www.learning-theories.com/humanism.html.

Rogers, C. (1969). Freedom to learn (1st ed.). New York: Macmillan/Merrill.

Post 1: Post # 1 – Trends

My learning Partner and I had emails back and forth and one Skype conversation regarding how we should set up our blog and what should we do to complete our blog assignment. He started his course one week ahead of me, therefore, his blog seems very good and professional. His article of choice for his trends in adult education is PBL and Adult education PBL and Adult Education 


 His Article overview is articulate:

 Problem-based learning (PBL) and adult education share many of the same learning elements, objectives, and outcomes that act to reciprocally enhance the benefits of the teaching and learning process for adult learners. Problem-based learning is an instructional strategy that focuses on actively engaging learners through the process of problem-solving. Within adult education, learners take on an active role in the learning process and must use their prior skills, knowledge, and experiences to construct, design, and develop solutions to problems typically encountered in real-world scenarios (Savery, 2006).

I choose my Article after our Skype conversation and it is in connection with  Internationalization of Education.

For my blog assignment I post this article in my Website, it is from “elButlletí” a bimonthly publication of AQU Catalunya.
There is no recipe or one set of indicators for an internationalized university. Internationalization is a process of change which is tailored to meet the individual needs and interests of each higher education entity. Consequently, there is no ‘one size fits all’ model of internationalization. Adopting a set of objectives and strategies which are ‘in vogue’ and for ‘branding’ purposes only negates the principle that each program, institution, or country needs to determine its individual approach to internationalization based on its own clearly articulated rationales, goals and expected outcomes. This recognizes that the internationalization process is driven by an assessment of individual needs and priorities and that a ‘formulaic’ or latest fad approach is not appropriate, beneficial or sustainable.
Jane Knight – Adjunct Professor, Department of Leadership, Higher and Adult Education in OISE (Ontario Institute for Studies in Education), University of Toronto


Part 2: Post #2 – Implications

As we know internationalization of education is not new. I am interested in internationalization because I have the experiences of teaching in different countries with different trends in education, Historically, students have sought better continuing education abroad influenced by the desire to benefit from better opportunities provided by universities in the developed countries.I believe that in the national level, internationalization of education is presented as a process that institutions in developing countries should manage their education system in order to address the persistent challenges of sustainable development in order to develop their spectrum of knowledge all  around the world to have a better life for all the people. In conclusion,according to my idea internationalization is a strategy to realize success in human-capability and institutional-capacity development in the universities across the world, especially in Canada that is a multiculturalism country and is the sample of Internationalization 

Part 3: Post # 3 – “Aha” Moments

I was born in Balochestanof Iran, great Indigenous people with thousands of years’ history have their own unique language andcustom and I honor their welcome and graciousness. In Canada I also acknowledgeour traditional host, therefore in this article the” Aha” Moment is the Impactof Internationalization of Education and Globalization on their cultures and customs.The impact of new forms of international academic mobility on the recognitionand promotion of indigenous and diverse cultures is a subject that evokesstrong positions and sentiments. Many believe that modern information andcommunication technologies and the movement of people, ideas, and culturesacross national boundaries presents new opportunities to promote one’s cultureto other countries and to enhance the fusion and hybridization of cultures. Animportant benefit is a greater understanding of cultural diversity andhopefully stronger intercultural appreciation and communications skills, but I believethese same forces are eroding national cultural identities and that, instead ofcreating new hybrid cultures, indigenous cultures are being homogenized whichin most cases means Westernized. Because education has traditionally been seenas a vehicle of acculturation, these arguments focus on the specifics ofcurriculum content, language of instruction (particularly the increase inEnglish) and the teaching/learning process in international education. I believewe should learn and teach to maintain our diverse culture in the format of theworld’s leading multicultural country.



Trend In Adult Education

Internationalization of education

For my blog assignment I post this article in my Website, it is from “elButlletí” a bimonthly publication of AQU Catalunya.
There is no recipe or one set of indicators for an internationalized university. Internationalization is a process of change which is tailored to meet the individual needs and interests of each higher education entity. Consequently, there is no ‘one size fits all’ model of internationalization. Adopting a set of objectives and strategies which are ‘in vogue’ and for ‘branding’ purposes only negates the principle that each program, institution, or country needs to determine its individual approach to internationalization based on its own clearly articulated rationales, goals and expected outcomes. This recognizes that the internationalization process is driven by an assessment of individual needs and priorities and that a ‘formulaic’ or latest fad approach is not appropriate, beneficial or sustainable.
Jane Knight – Adjunct Professor, Department of Leadership, Higher and Adult Education in OISE (Ontario Institute for Studies in Education), University of Toronto